Ripal J. Gaudana, Mitan R. Gokulgandhi, Sai H.S. Boddu and Ashim K. Mitra Pages 95 - 106 ( 12 )
Ocular drug therapy has always been considered as a major challenge in the field of drug delivery. The presence of blood ocular barriers and efflux pumps has imposed a great concern as well. Various vision threatening disorders require a long term therapy of drug molecules, especially for the diseases that affect the posterior segment. Pharmaceutical companies and other research institutes have adopted a multidisciplinary approach to meet the current challenges which is evidenced by the trends seen in the published and filed U.S. patents. Various strategies have been employed to achieve long term sustained and targeted delivery for both the anterior and the posterior segments of the ocular diseases. These strategies include formulating drugs into implant, micro or nanoparticulate systems and hydrogel-based systems. Transporter targeted approach has also allowed scientists to deliver drugs to both the segments of the eye. Recent developments such as delivery of drugs utilizing ultrasound, iontophoresis and microneedle based devices have been promising. Genebased therapeutics has opened a new avenue for vision threatening disorders. In all, the current developments in the entire field have been very exciting for finding out new strategies to treat vision threatening disorders.
Drug delivery, nanotechnology, patents, prodrug, transporter targeting
Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, HSB 5258, 2464 Charlotte St, Kansas City, MO 64108 U.S.A.