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Nanotherapies for the Treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Disease: Recent Advancements and Challenges

[ Vol. 13 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Vamshi Krishna Rapalli, Srividya Gorantla, Tejashree Waghule, Arisha Mahmood, Prem Prakash Singh, Sunil Kumar Dubey, Ranendra Narayan Saha and Gautam Singhvi*   Pages 283 - 290 ( 8 )

Abstract:


Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is one of the common diseases affecting the posterior part of the eye, of a large population above 45 years old. Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor- A (Anti-VEGF-A) agents have been considered and approved as therapeutic agents for the treatment of AMD. Due to the large molecular weight and poor permeability through various eye membranes, VEGF-A inhibitors are given through an intravitreal injection, even though the delivery of small therapeutic molecules by topical application to the posterior part of the eye exhibits challenges in the treatment. To overcome these limitations, nanocarrier based delivery systems have been utilized to a large extent for the delivery of therapeutics. Nanocarriers system offers prodigious benefits for the delivery of therapeutics to the posterior part of the eye in both invasive and non-invasive techniques. The nano size can improve the permeation of therapeutic agent across the biological membranes. They provide protection from enzymes present at the site, targeted delivery or binding with the disease site and extend the release of therapeutic agents with prolonged retention. This leads to improved therapeutic efficacy, patient compliance, and cost effectiveness of therapy with minimum dose associated side-effects. This review has summarized various nanocarriers explored for the treatment of AMD and challenges in translation.

Keywords:

Age-related macular degeneration, nanocarriers, vascular endothelial growth factor, intravitreal, posterior segment, neo-vascularization.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani, Pilani Campus, Rajasthan 333031, Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani, Pilani Campus, Rajasthan 333031, Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani, Pilani Campus, Rajasthan 333031, Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani, Pilani Campus, Rajasthan 333031, Formulation development, Slayback Pharma India LLP, Hyderabad 500072, Telangana, Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani, Pilani Campus, Rajasthan 333031, Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani, Pilani Campus, Rajasthan 333031, Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani, Pilani Campus, Rajasthan 333031

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